UX Tools

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15 useful UI/UX tools for designers in 2022

From doing early whiteboard exercises to working on the finished product, each stage of the design and product development process is now helped by a whole range of tools. The usability and accessibility of these tools have never been higher, and it’s making product development easier and more powerful for everyone.

  1. Maze : Remote testing for agile teams
  2. Sketch : The digital design platform
  3. Adobe XD : The UI/UX design solution for websites, apps, and more
  4. Balsamiq : The rapid, effective, and fun wireframing software
  5. Figma : The collaborative interface design tool
  6. InVision : Digital product design, workflow, and collaboration
  7. Marvel : The design platform for digital products
  8. Axure : Ux prototypes, specifications, and diagrams in one tool
  9. Framer : The prototyping tool for teams
  10. UXPin : UI design and prototyping tool
  11. FlowMapp : The UX tool for web design
  12. Origami Studio : Design, animate, and protoype
  13. Proto.io : Prototyping for all
  14. Wireframe.cc : An app fine-tuned for wireframing
  15. Webflow : A visual way to build the web
Name Features Price Available on
Maze • Run in-depth tests with or without prototypes
• Test and validate ideas, concepts, copy
• Remote, rapid user testing and research
Free for individual projects, with paid plans from $25 per user/month Browsers
Sketch • Create prototypes
• Visual design for web-based products
• Collaboration tools
Starting plan of $9 per user/month macOS
Adobe XD • Create product prototypes, mobile apps and websites
• Create workflows, element creation, animated transitions, dynamic elements
Free for single documents, then starting plan of $9.99/month Windows, macOS
Balsamiq • Wireframing tool
• Create mockups which focus on functionality and user flow
Starting plan of $9/month Browsers, Windows, macOS
Figma • Cloud-based design
• Design and build prototypes
• Create wireframes, mind maps, mood boards
• Collaboration tools
Free for three projects, then starting plan $12 per user/month Browsers, Windows, macOS
InVision • Outline user journeys
• Create wireframes and prototypes
• Create design handoff features
• Collaboration tools
• Standalone design and UX tool
Free for three documents, then $7.95 per user/month Windows, macOS
Marvel • Create wireframes and prototypes
• User testing for prototypes
Free for single user and project, then €9/month Browsers, iOS, Android
Axure • Create wireframes and lo-fi prototypes
• Add dynamic panels, animations and graphic interactions
Starting plan of $25 per user/month Windows, macOS
Framer • Create high-fidelity prototypes and work on screen design
• Requires basic level of CSS and HTML coding
• Create wireframes
• Visual design
• Basic user testing
Free for three projects, then $19 per user/month Browsers, macOS (paid only)
UXPin • Create high-fidelity prototypes
• Import designs from other tools
• Simple, drag-and-drop functionality
Starting plan of $19 per user/month Browsers, Windows, macOS
FlowMapp • Plan UI and UX of apps, digital products and websites
• User research functionality
• Content planning tool
• Sitemapping tool
• Collaboration tools
• User persona feature
Free plan available, then $15 per month Browsers
Origami Studio • High-fidelity prototyping tool
• Patch editor and library of existing patches
Free macOS, iOS, Android
Proto.io • Create high-fidelity prototypes
• Collaboration tools
Starting plan of $24/month Browsers
Wireframe.cc • Low-fidelity tool focused on minimalism
• Create wireframes easily
• Ideal for beginners
Free for unlimited public wireframes, then $16 per/user month Browsers
Webflow • Website designer, builder and content management system
• Design-to-code generator
Free for one website, then $12 per month or $19 for multiple users Browsers

What are UX tools?

UX tools will help you with various tasks at various stages in the product development process, from research and user testing, to wireframing and prototyping, and even managing design activities. They’ll also help you structure information architecture, product experience, and user flow.

Since Lean User Experience (UX) Design is user-centered and relies on a collaborative approach and rapid experimentation and prototyping to get user feedback, it’s a great way of structuring and combining your UX tools into a holistic approach towards a better user experience.

THINK phase: user research tools

Knowing your audience is the first phase in UX design and helps you develop experiences that reflect the voice and fit the needs of your users. To learn about your audience, you’ll need user research tools and a few other UX resources.

1. Interview tools

User Interviews

What it is: User Interviews is a user research platform that helps UX and product teams recruit audiences for remote or in-person studies. The platform helps user-centric companies find participants for interviewing and testing so they can create better products for their users.

What it helps you do: find and interview the right users for your UX research. The platform handles everything from recruiting, screening, scheduling, and compensating for any type of research project, with automated features that help you save time and effort.

Dovetail

What it is: Dovetail is cloud research software for notetaking, data repository, research analysis, and synthesis. They pride themselves on featuring a rich text collaborative editor, inline tagging, images and files, insights, and sentiment analysis.

What it helps you do: once you have your interview data, use Dovetail to collate and store user research notes, transcripts, images, videos, audio recordings, and more in a single repository. Then, scour through the data to discover patterns and easily tag, filter, and search for highlights.

2. Survey tools

Hotjar Feedback

Improve UX with product experience insights from Hotjar

Google Forms

What it helps you do: create a form to see if potential participants meet the criteria for your research study. Add targeted questions, such as name, role, observation, and time. When responses come in, you can send them automatically to a spreadsheet and easily filter key user journeys, pain points, and other important results.

3. Persona creation tools

Google Analytics

What it helps you do: tools like GA are a great source for understanding user behavior within your product. After your qualitative research, use quantitative data collected from GA to create user (or buyer) personas.

User persona research can reveal users’ concerns and help you create a content strategy to address them. It can also show you the types of users who are interested in your services (age, location, medium they use, social network preferences).

Look at user data from GA to identify key patterns that drive conversions to understand your core audience. Collect data from primary dimensions like demographics and interests, and secondary dimensions like age and gender. You can also use GA for cohort analysis, which is all about breaking users down into groups (cohorts) and studying each group’s behavior.

UXPressia

What it helps you do: once you have your defined buyer personas, use UXPressia to create a visual overview of how customers interact with and experience your website, app, or product across multiple touchpoints.

4. In-house testing tools

FitNesse Tool

What it helps you do: identify all possible issues or bugs through Alpha testing before releasing a product to the public. Once you enter input, FitNesse interprets the data and automatically creates tests, which are then executed by the system. This way, you can access fast user feedback—reducing failures and risks and increasing your product quality through customer validation.

Bugwolf

What it helps you do: get a detailed picture of how real users feel about your product, website, or app through Beta testing. This type of testing takes place in a real-time environment with the feedback of real users. Beta testing can help you:

Bugwolf works with various types of user tests, including performance, usability, content, SEO, security, black-box, cross-browser, software, load, and more. After testing, you’ll get an overview of all bug reports, prioritized by severity, complete with video and audio commentary.

MAKE phase: design tools

User interface (UI) design tools deal with the visual part of UX design—they help designers brainstorm, schedule, and turn ideas into something real. During this phase, designers and developers try to build features to solve a problem or improve the website, app, or product.

1. Flowcharting tools

Lucidchart

Start by making low-fidelity mockups. If elements of your user journey match existing UI design components of your product, drag-and-drop screenshots of your product to your design instead of replicating the components from scratch. Since Lucidchart is cloud-based, you can easily share your design sketches with Project Managers or other stakeholders early on in the process.

You can connect Lucidchart to apps like Salesforce, Microsoft Office, Jira, Confluence, and GitHub to import stored data and create live diagrams that update in real time. Lucidchart works across all devices, supports Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems, and works offline, which means it can run faster.

OmniGraffle

Use OmniGraffle’s diagramming and flowchart capabilities to start mapping user journeys through your product. The interface is laid out just how Mac and iPad users expect, which is something web applications can’t deliver. Being native means OmniGraffle also works offline.

2. Wireframing tools

Balsamiq

Balsamiq uses a non-pixel-perfect visual aesthetic to encourage brainstorming and is optimized for communicating design concepts and generating ideas in the early stages of the software process. It intentionally has "just enough" prototyping capabilities, but not more.

Marvel

What it helps you do: Marvel shines as a rapid wireframing tool. Use it in the early stages of the design process, when you’re forming your concept into something tangible and want to translate it to your team, clients, or stakeholders. Create wireframes within minutes on any device.

You can create screens directly in Marvel or add images from Sketch or Photoshop and sync designs from your cloud storage. There’s also a Sketch plugin, which is great if you use it for app design work and want to take advantage of some of Marvel’s features, like the range of gestures and image layering.

3. Prototyping tools

Figma

Figma’s multi-user real-time collaboration features let you view and work on your project as a team (we’re big fans of Figma, ourselves!). Much like Google Docs, you’ll see who’s working and what they’re doing, and you can leave comments. Everything is synced, so if one team member changes something, it affects the whole project without publishing changes.

UX Analytics and Event Tracking Tools

UX analytics and event tracking tools allow marketers, product teams, sales teams, and user researchers to capture the actions of their websites’ users. You can collect the data to make evaluations, so it helps you understand your customer’s actions and enhance your marketing strategy and user experience.

15. Woopra – End-to-end Customer Journey Analytics

Woopra offers real-time data-driven customer analytics, which enables sales, marketing, and product teams to effortlessly analyze the different segments and funnels on your website. The platform is designed to help startups and enterprises optimize the customer life-cycle by delivering live, granular behavioral data for individual website visitors and customers.

Best UX Analytics Tools - Hotjar

Who Uses Woopra?

Woopra Pricing Information

Woopra gives three subscription plans: Core is /month, which can be a very good offer for start-ups. It is free up to 500K action and 90 Day data retention. Pro ($999/month), and Enterprise (custom priced).

16. Clicky – Web Analytics in Real-Time

Clicky analytically reports various ‘on-site’ actions, such as page views and downloads. It allows you to track whether users proceed to the next step and on what steps they quit. Furthermore, it also demonstrates analytical information on activities on social media. Many analytics tools update once a day, Clicky is one of the exceptions. This tool shows real-time statistics.

Who Uses Clicky?

Clicky Pricing Information

Clicky has both paid and free plans, all new accounts automatically get a free 21 day trial of premium service, with access to all features and the ability to track up to 3 web sites and 1,000,000 daily page views.

17. Hotjar – The Fast and Visual Way to Understand Your Customer

Hotjar is a powerful tool that reveals the online behavior and voice of your users. By combining both Analysis and Feedback tools, Hotjar gives you the ‘big picture’ of how to improve your site’s user experience and performance/conversion rates.

Best UX Analytics Tools - Hotjar

Who Uses Hotjar?

Hotjar Pricing Information

Hotjar offers 3 different kinds of pricing plans: personal, business, and agency. It is free up to 2,000 page views per day for personal accounts and prices start from $89/month for businesses. Hotjar Pricing.

18. UXtweak – the only UX research platform you need

The tool allows you to replay tasks and visitors for you to see what they experience and what the pain points are. With the tool, you can sit back and enjoy while your UX test is being conducted with real users.

ux tools and pricing uxtweak

Who uses UXtweak?

UXtweak Pricing Information

UXtweak has a free basic plan that you can use for small projects. The Professional Plan costs 140€/month and the Agency and Enterprise plans are offered with custom prices.

Sources:

https://maze.co/collections/ux-ui-design/tools/
https://www.hotjar.com/ux-design/tools/
https://userguiding.com/blog/ux-tools/
UX Tools

So, start with the tool itself. Chances are, the tool you use has extensive tutorials to guide you every step of the way. This means you’ll save money because you won’t have to take extra courses on how to use a tool.

marvel design platform

UX Tools

User experience designers use UX tools—often purpose-built software—at different stages of their work. For example, designers test their assumptions using prototyping software (e.g., Balsamiq) and do usability testing with other software (e.g., Loop11). To stay competitive, brands make UX tools extremely easy to learn.

Throughout the stages of the UX design process designers use tools to help create digital or physical representations of their ideas. “UX tool” may refer to any technology you use this way – be it to apply design principles in prototyping or simply record ideas. At the lower levels, UX tools are basic aids such as the markers, Post-its and whiteboards teams use during brainstorming sessions. Similarly, you use physical UX tools when you do paper prototyping.

At the higher levels, UX tools are the software you use to advance your and your teams ideas ranging from free to premium options. You can divide these between software that helps in copywriting (e.g., Grammarly), team collaboration (e.g., Dropbox) and various other types of tools:

What are the best UX research tools?

1. Optimal Workshop for card sorting, tree testing and first-click testing

Optimal workshop UX research tool website

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

2. Lookback for user interviews and usability tests

Lookback UX research tool website

The collaborative dashboard allows you to sync all your research, tag your teammates, and create highlight reels of all the most useful insights. You can set up virtual observation rooms, record users’ screens as they navigate your app or website, and transcribe your user interviews.

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

3. Typeform for surveys

Typeform UX research tool

Surveys are a UX research staple, offering a quick, easy and inexpensive way to gather user insights. When sending out surveys for UX research, you’ll usually ask questions about the respondents’ attitudes and preferences in relation to the product or service you’re designing.

Typeform is one of the most popular survey tools among UX designers. With Typeform, you can design your own surveys from scratch or choose from a range of templates. After you’ve distributed your survey, you can see responses and completion rates and generate shareable reports.

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

4. Maze for user surveys, concept validation, and wireframe & prototype testing

Maze UX research tools

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

Professional Diploma in UX Design

5. UserZoom for surveys, card sorting, click testing, and usability tests

UserZoom UX research tools

UserZoom is a remote UX research platform for various studies and tests at different stages of the product design process. As such, UserZoom is a handy tool for both informing your design decisions and testing them out.

Similar to Optimal Workshop and Maze, UserZoom is a complete UX research toolbox used for card sorting, usability testing, surveys, click testing, tree testing, and user interviews. The platform also includes a fully-integrated participant recruitment engine with over 120 million users worldwide.

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

6. dscout for remote user interviews and diary studies

dscout UX research tools

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

7. Hotjar for analytics and heatmaps

Hotjar

You can use Hotjar to send out surveys, capture and watch screen recordings of people interacting with your website, create heatmaps, and gather real-time user feedback. Hotjar is all about stepping into your users’ shoes and improving the user experience accordingly!

Main features at a glance:

How much does it cost?

8. Reframer for analysing qualitative research

Reframer UX research tools

Reframer is part of the Optimal Workshop suite of UX research tools (number 1 on our list), but we think it’s worth a special mention. As UX designer Carrie Nusbaum notes in her own review of Reframer :

“There are many tools that support the act of actual user testing, and many that facilitate design. Relatively few tools, however, specifically support some important steps that take place in between, namely: data organisation, research synthesis, and presentation of findings.”

Webflow

webflow homepage

Webflow gives you the power to design without knowing HTML or CSS. With drag and drop functionality and an intuitive interface, Webflow gives you the creative freedom to build whatever you imagine. Using Webflow for building a prototype gives you an actual website, and generates accurate HTML and CSS code or JavaScript when implementing micro-interactions. This saves time. Instead of taking what’s been drafted in a prototype and building a design from it, you already have what you need to give to a developer. You can also use a template if you don’t want to start from scratch.

Sources:

https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/topics/ux-tools
https://www.uxdesigninstitute.com/blog/best-ux-research-tools/
https://webflow.com/blog/ui-ux-design-tools
UX Tools

Userlytics is a user testing platform that helps you conduct research at scale by testing digital assets like websites, applications, mobile apps, prototypes, etc. You can collect both qualitative and quantitative data and set up advanced metrics and graphical reports.

user-experience-ux-tools-red-pen

A Comprehensive List of the Top 10 UX Research Tools

Building your UX research tool stack is an essential step in establishing an effective research practice. In this chapter, we are rounding up some essential tools that will help you conduct UX research and move the needle in your organization.

UX researchers have access to many different solutions to conduct user research and manage different stages of their workflow. For instance, there are tools for conducting usability testing, surveys, interviews, or more specialized tests, such as card sorting or tree testing.

Other common tools make it easier to document research, take notes, and transcribe interviews. Finally, UX researchers can use specific tools to recruit participants, capture remote or in-person sessions, and generate real-time reports to share with the rest of the team.

Research Tools

UsabilityTools

user-experience-ux-tools-usability-tools

See the website from the user’s perspective or ask them directly how to improve your service. The platform combines qualitative and quantitative approach. UsabilityTools is integrated with a research panel with access to over 10 million people worldwide. For more details read our review of UsabilityTools.

Woopra

user-experience-ux-tools-woopra

Track, analyze, and take action on live customer data. Woopra helps you to identify the soft spots in your conversion funnel so that you can improve them later on. The information you get allows you to measure marketing initiatives and evaluate the ROI of each.

MouseStats

user-experience-ux-tools-mouse-stats

Watch your website visitors – see all mouse movements, scrolls, key-strokes and clicks as a movie. Thanks to interactive heatmaps you can find out which areas on the page attract more attention and which make users confused. Data on web form visitors help you to understand which fields cause dropouts.

Usabilla

user-experience-ux-tools-usabilla

Understand what people think and feel while browsing your site. Usabilla focuses on collecting visual user feedback allowing visitors to answer questions by placing points and notes on top of the design. You will be able to select and compare clicks, and analyze comments within their visual context.

Verify

user-experience-ux-tools-verify

Collect and analyze user feedback on screens or mockups. You can gather feedback, see what people remember about your design or how they feel about it. Great for testing out the ideas before you implement them.

Naview

user-experience-ux-tools-naview

Polldaddy

user-experience-ux-tools-polldaddy

Create surveys and polls in minutes. PollDaddy provides polling widgets for blogs, websites and social networks. Advanced filters allow you to analyze your data more quickly. You can collect responses via your website, e-mail or social media.

TryMyUI

user-experience-ux-tools-trymyui

Hear what users are thinking as they use your site. You get a narrated video of each user navigating your website while trying to perform tasks you want. The service allows you to see your website through the eyes of your user. All tests are self-moderated.

Loop11

user-experience-ux-tools-loop11

Improve usability of your website through scenario based tests. This automated service lets you to evaluate web usability with hundreds of users. You can also benchmark against your competitors and see how your website compares.

Attensee

user-experience-ux-tools-attensee

Choose the best design variations of landing pages or marketing materials. Combine tests with classic surveys to understand which design variation does the best use of users’ attention. Best for pre-launch landing page optimization. For more details, read our reviwew of Attensee.

Silverback

user-experience-ux-tools-silverback

Silverback allows Mac users to record screen activity (such as mouse clicks) and hence facilitate guerilla usability testing without having to go through any complex configurations. This is because it makes use of hardware that is already present in your Mac.

UserTesting

user-experience-ux-tools-user-testing

Design Tools

Wireframing is an important technique to reduce the cost and risk involved in developing complex interactive systems. It involves building a small scale version of a system in order to acquire essential feedback required to build it.

UXPin

user-experience-ux-tools-uxpin

Balsamiq

user-experience-ux-tools-balsamiq

Mockingbird

user-experience-ux-tools-mockingbird

Justinmind

user-experience-ux-tools-concept-just-in-mind

Pidoco

user-experience-ux-tools-pidoco

MockFlow

user-experience-ux-tools-mockflow

Proto.io

user-experience-ux-tools-proto-io

Gliffy

user-experience-ux-tools-gliffy

Wireframe.cc

user-experience-ux-tools-wireframe

Lorem Ipsum Generator

user-experience-ux-tools-lorem-ipsum-generator

Zoom, GotoMeeting and other video conferencing tools

David Sloan, UX research lead at accessibility consultancy The Paciello Group, often conducts user research with people with disabilities. As there isn’t time or budget for face-to-face usability testing, he has found great value in web conferencing tools like Zoom or Skype for remote evaluation.

“Zoom’s ability to record system audio as well as the participant’s own speech and their screen makes it ideal for remote testing with screen reader users,” he explains. “By setting up a multi-participant call you can also have observers watch and listen and take notes. The fidelity of the recorded audio supports high-quality transcription of the screen reader output and moderator/participant dialogue, which can be used for analysis purposes. For assistive technology users, minimizing demands for additional software to be installed before a remote evaluation is particularly important, and the Zoom interface is pretty accessible.”

Zoom video conference call with 3 participants.

Sloan points out that one limitation of web conferencing software is their inability to out-of-the-box broadcast or record a screen as seen when magnification or a high contrast color scheme has been applied. However, in his experience of carrying out research with screen reader users, these tools are ideal, especially for quick, targeted evaluations as a way to inject accessible user experience into an agile development process.

Bekah Rice, senior UX designer/developer and accessibility expert at user experience strategy firm truematter, agrees that video conferencing tools are great to capture tests and share them with observers. In her experience, GoToMeeting is one of the more practical ones.

For Ben Grace, lead UX designer at WordPress-centric digital agency 10up, team collaboration software Miro has become an indispensable tool to plan and prep for research, keep the team organized as they execute, and a great way to socialize their findings.

“Our team has found that having a single place for our work that is visible to the team is very useful, and common in shared physical spaces,” he explains. “However, at 10up, we’re a fully remote team, and Miro has really enhanced how we work. Remote collaboration is always challenging, but we’re able to quickly access and keep our insights in a single space for the full team to view.”

Sample whiteboard from UX research tool, Miro.

The goal of this workshop is to kickstart the UX design team at 10up on a project and gain internal alignment on activities and deliverables. UX designers use this to outline and estimate activities and deliverables.

Choose a tool that works for you and focus on the users

There are a ton of UX research tools out there, and you’ll need to decide which ones are most suited to your projects and way of working. As user and product research leader Gregg Bernstein points out, the best tools are those already in use by your organization.

“People are creatures of habit — your colleagues included,” he explains. “To make research visible and accessible, keep as much of the research process within their current technological ecosystem. Whether your org uses Slack and Google Drive, or Basecamp and Zoom, there you go: that’s your research toolbox. After six months to a year like this, you’ll know what’s working just fine and what’s ripe for better tooling.”

Lindsey Wallace, senior experience researcher at Adobe, meanwhile, advises to check your ego at the door and remember your participants are the experts: “When running research, I always want my participants to feel like nothing they can say is a ‘wrong answer’ because I’m there to learn about their experiences. This requires patience and the ability to create an environment of trust and safety. User research is a judgement free zone!”

“Ultimately, no tool is a substitute for the expertise of a trained researcher who approaches their work and participants with deep curiosity and leverages literature and other resources in their field to contextualize their insights.”

Sources:

https://maze.co/guides/ux-research/ux-research-tools/
https://usabilitygeek.com/user-experience-ux-tools/
https://xd.adobe.com/ideas/process/user-research/best-ux-research-tools/

15 Tips for Getting Started in Freelance Writing

freelance writer

Freelance Writing: 13 Tips to Get You Started

Does the work from anywhere lifestyle enchant you? Is writing one of your strong suits and favorite things to do? If the answer to these questions is a yes, then you absolutely should see the world of freelance content writing for yourself. As a freelance content writer, you can work literally from anywhere, and at any time. Freelancing is the new all-comfortable mode of work. And freelance content writers enjoy what they do because they have control over their hours and choice of work. They are not bound by a long-term contract of employment with an organization.

A freelance writer is an individual who works on a self-employed basis. They have the freedom to do work of their choice; and they can work with one or multiple organizations at a time. Let’s take a look at some of the best freelance beginner tips.

2. Research the Industry

Some people have the advantage of a degree or certificate that introduced them to the ins and outs of freelance writing. I came out of university with a Theatre Degree. But thanks to the Internet, there is a flurry of information already available online and websites ready to help you get started. I spent an entire winter just researching what it meant to be a freelance writer, what kind of outlets existed for my writing, and what the process was for getting published. I met with the only freelance writer I knew to learn how she got started. As it turns out, the path she took (ie. writing for newspapers) had no appeal to me, but at least I learned this was an option.

Learning about the infamous “query letter” was my first big “aha!” moment when I was researching how to enter the freelance market. Most publications, especially those that pay for material, don’t want to receive a complete, unsolicited article. Instead, they want you to pitch your idea in the form of a query letter.

Editors are busy and likely won’t read a full article, but they can make time to browse through a well-written query. If an editor likes your idea, this also gives him or her some space to suggest possible angles and fulfill the current needs of the magazine. See this piece on How to Write a Query Letter for the specifics. Keep track of your queries so that you know where and when you submitted them.

Make sure you’re writing good freelance content.

It’s not just about turning in the freelance assignment and meeting a deadline. Make sure you’re creating good content for freelance clients every time by meeting your deadline, turning in the correct word count, following the outline your editor provided and checking for spelling and grammar mistakes. If you feel unsure of the direction your article is taking during the writing process, check in with the editor. I always appreciated it when a freelance writer did this for me when I was a an assigning editor on staff at Weight Watchers, Prevention magazine or Muscle and Fitness magazine. Perhaps a source you interviewed revealed a new angle, or you found research that says the basis of your article is unfounded. Freelance writing for beginners and advanced writers is about making sure you’re on the right path with the article you’re going to turn in so the editor knows what to expect.

This is one of those freelance writing for beginners tips that could be interpreted two ways. One way is to make sure you’re asking clients for feedback on how to improve your articles and make their lives easier. The other is to listen to what people are talking about when you need to come up with article ideas. What problems do friends and family bring to you to help them solve? Recall the conversations you’ve had with your friends about their issues and problems— maybe it’s babysitting, being a caretaker, health issues…this list can go on forever. Jot down snippets of those conversations in a notepad on your phone and visit them at a later time to see if they have any weight or could become article pitches. This freelance writing tip is just one of my fun ways to come up with freelance ideas.

Set up Google alerts on keywords and topics you want to write about.

Find a specific topic that interests you and follow experts and brands in that field on social media and in news stories when you. I frequently write about sleep, so I like to see which brands are coming out with new products, learn about the latest research and see which outlets are publishing content in this niche in my Google alerts. I also sign up to receive alerts on freelance writing tips, side hustle and freelance topics! Part of freelance writing for beginners is knowing what other writers are producing as well. This is a great way to stay on top of trends and learn a freelance niche as well as additional freelance writing tips.

Make sure you have a designated area you’ll start freelance writing for beginners in, use good lighting and have a door you can close so you won’t be disturbed by family members and roommates. While I first started freelance writing at a kitchen table in my tiny studio apartment, now I have a designated home office space with a desk, a large monitor, two laptops, a standing desk and a comfortable chair. Get work from home tips on how to be more productive as a beginner freelancer here.

Benefits of being a freelance writer

Many aspiring writers are daunted by going freelance, it can feel scary to be completely in charge of where your money comes from, and as with any self-employed work, imposter syndrome can creep in! However, this drawback can also be turned into a huge advantage. You can take on as much work as you choose, starting small at first and building up more work as you become more confident. If you are prepared to work hard, the rewards can be substantial.

  • Work any place, any time – One of the biggest perks of being a freelancer is being able to work when and where you choose. No need to set an alarm clock. You can fit your work around your lifestyle. Sunny day outside? Instead of being stuck inside an uninspiring office, you have the option to take your laptop to the park or even the beach. You can even work from the comfort of your own bed, should there be a day when you feel like lounging. It also fits perfectly around family life and is a great option for stay-at-home moms. There is freedom and flexibility in freelancing!
  • Work variety – Are you the kind of person who would find it boring doing the same work day in, day out? With freelance writing, you can be assigned all kinds of different topics, and you can choose to write about things that interest you, whether it is an academic topic or maybe health and wellbeing, parenting and family life, creative hobbies, etc. Being a freelance writer often means researching topics that you might not be familiar with at first, which can broaden your horizons.
  • It all depends on you – You are in complete control of your personal finance and how much or how little work you want to take on. You are your own boss – you can choose whether or not to take on a writing assignment – if the topic does not interest you or is not something you would feel confident writing about, then there will be plenty of other opportunities that suit you better. Your clients will know that time is money, and so if there is a tight deadline, you are perfectly entitled to ask for them to pay you more. The more work that you put in, the greater the reward will be.
  • Avoid the stress of office politics – Being your own boss also means that you get to choose who you work with. There is nobody above you, such as a boss or supervisor, that you have to impress, and no competition from other work colleagues. You can avoid all of the drama and stress that can come from working in the office environment, making work much more enjoyable and relaxed.

Conclusion

Having read all the advice that this article offers, you will have a clearer picture of freelancing and if it is for you. The few drawbacks are outweighed by many benefits, the main one being that you are completely in charge of your destiny. Freelance writing is an ever-growing industry where opportunities are many for those who are dedicated. The sheer variety of work on offer means that you will never feel bogged down in a mundane working life.

  1. If you enjoy working independently and the flexibility that setting your own hours will bring, then you will love freelancing. In fact, you will likely never want to work for anyone else but yourself again.
  2. Remember to log everything, as this will enable you to work more efficiently going forward. Track your time, keep records of your income and outgoings, focus on one task at a time, and be prepared to be flexible if something is not working in your favor. Although freelancing offers ultimate working freedom, it is also important to be methodical and organized.
  3. Perhaps the most important question of all is what do you want to achieve? Is it most important to you to write about topics that you are passionate about or to generate as much income as you can? Either way, there are plenty of opportunities to improve your writing and to find freelance writing gigs that will work best for you.
  4. You do not have to have contacts in the freelance writing world in order to find work for yourself. Cold pitching can be a very successful method if you do a little research and find companies that are likely to require your services. You should also make the most of technology, including social media. Making a career in freelance writing is possible for anyone who is willing to make it a reality.

And if you want to make freelancing even easier, Indy has all of the productivity tools you need to elevate your freelance business, including Proposals, Contracts, Forms, Chats, File Storage, Invoices, and a Time Tracker to give you greater levels of efficiency with just one website. Sign up to Indy today for free!

Resources:

https://www.peppercontent.io/blog/freelance-content-writer-beginner-tips/
https://www.meghanjoyward.com/blog/15-tips-freelance-writing
https://www.dianakelly.com/freelance-writing-tips-for-beginners
https://weareindy.com/blog/8-tips-for-new-freelance-writers

How to Start Content Writing (For Beginners)

Sometimes, though, established freelancers may get busy, or they may drop clients due to personal matters, busy schedules, or a change in the work that they do. Because of this, it may be best to have contracts with several writers so that you have a backup option available.

Convey much with few words

I find inspiration in ad copy that takes little space to reflect a strong message. Sure, you’ll need to write much more than a couple of sentences for your content marketing, but simplicity has merit. How well you write always sets the stage for what’s to come.

I was impressed with this line from Dove, “You’re more beautiful than you think.” It’s part of Dove Real Beauty Sketches, a six-minute YouTube video with 11 million views since 2013. The content looks at the gap between how we perceive ourselves and how others see us.

In 2019, Spotify gained notice with its Spotify Everywhere meme-themed campaign. For example, on one billboard, the left side read: “Me: It’s Okay; the breakup was mutual.” On the right side, it read: “Also Me: Sad Indie” (complete with the app’s music search imagery). The simple, creatively delivered message went deep into a full range of emotions familiar to countless people.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to numerous ad campaigns that underscore the value of brevity. Nike handled it this way: “If you ever dreamed of playing for millions around the world, now is your chance. Play inside, play for the world.”

Freelance Writing Niches

Remember that certain niches pay more money for content writers than others. For example, writing SEO articles, medical newsletters, or articles for the legal industry, provided you have the necessary qualifications and expertise.

Writing daily is a helpful way to approach things. This allows the writer to write something every day, even if it’s just a few sentences, and then edit and rewrite it. It helps the writer develop his/her content writing skill.

If you don’t have any experience as a writer, don’t worry. No one knows everything about writing when they start out. Most experienced writers will tell you that they’re still learning something new every day.

Even if you’ve been writing for a while, it’s fun to see your earnings grow. It’s not easy to get money and work. So when you’re successful, you’ve to appreciate it. That’s part of the business of being a writer.

Time Management and Tracking

For example, you could use a headline that’s identical to the headline of a direct response ad. Or you could use a call to action that would appear in a direct response ad. Or you could create a list that’s in the style of a direct response ad.

If you’re looking for a really good first revision solution, I recommend taking a look at Instatext. With the ability to correct an entire text with one click and choose the tone and region, it’s a really cool tool. One of the benefits is that it helps keep tone and style consistent.

At a later stage of editing, I use Grammarly Premium to make fine corrections (although I find that it’s often too tedious to make all the suggested changes – I reserve that for particularly valuable content).

Content Writing Tips

Articles

What type of content do marketers produce?

Blog posts should accurately reflect the brand’s identity, usually in a friendly, relaxed way. This strategy applies to complex topics, too, with the content writer being able to successfully turn them into engaging pieces that convert into leads.

  • Check use of keywords.Use keywords effectively in the text, H1 header, meta title, meta description, and subheadings.
  • Make sure the title is perfectly optimized. You want the title to be enticing and offer the reader information that they need, while also meeting search engine requirements.
  • Check the optimization of the meta description.Explain the benefits of your article and make it unique. You can check the correctness and effectiveness of your titles and meta descriptions with the help of On Page SEO Checker or Site Audit.
  • Make sure the introduction is magnetic. Get people “hooked” in the introduction by addressing their feelings, as well as adopting other effective methods.
  • Make sure the copy is easily read.Readable copy will have a good H2, H3, and H4 structure, skimmable headlines that inform without reading, clear and informative paragraphs, bullet points, and numbered lists.
  • Check the links to relevant on-site and off-site resources. Link to reliable external content to build trust around your copy, and to internal content that guides users through their customer journey.

If you work with a writer, then our SEO Copywriting Guide will explain to you how to evaluate the work of a writer. Alternatively, if you do your own writing, it is recommended to use SEO Writing Assistant, which analyzes your target keywords and suggests how to make your copy more readable and SEO-friendly in real time.

SEO Writing Assistant Semrush

Product Content

Tips for you to write effective product descriptions

Website Сontent

example of a web page

Email Newsletters

Email newsletters are important for retargeting customers and maintaining engagement with your company’s base. They can provide a diverse range of information including company and industry news, product information, or sales incentives. In the past year, 55% of marketers have reported that they owe their most lucrative ROI measurements to email marketing.

As we learned from the Top Content Marketing Trends research, marketers who want to keep pace with the modern world are looking to customization and personalization. Emails that are highly segmented tend to have higher performance levels for metrics such as open rate and clickthrough rate than emails that aren’t personalized.

  • Hook the reader with the title. Your subject line should be catchy. It’s great if you can add humor, but make sure the headline is clear. The user must understand what the email is about.
  • Write about the potential benefit to users – not about your business. Opt for language like “you can get” over “we offer”, and think about how the user will benefit if they take the action you are asking them to. For example, if you sell multicookers, then the user benefit is not purchasing the product, but having more free time for other tasks.
  • Be clear about what you are proposing. This applies to both text and visual design. The CTA button should be the brightest and most attractive element on the page, and the text should state the main idea from the first or second paragraph. Remember that you don’t have much time to get the reader’s attention, so try to be brief.

Press Releases

Ebooks

At least 37% of businesses create ebooks on a regular basis. There are many goals that you may want to achieve by writing an ebook, such as establishing yourself as an industry expert, moving potential customers down the sales funnel, educating readers on your brand or product.

The desired goal defines which sections you should include in your ebook; for example, a section with tables and figures is more applicable to a research paper than to a company playbook or other format.

Writing an ebook with Semrush

Outsourcing Content

Creating quality content is difficult to do regardless of size, and it can become an even bigger challenge when you’re working on scaling. To up your content development game, you can use either in-house resources or outsource the content.

Outsourcing Cons

The biggest actual negative of outsourcing is that it will use up some of your marketing budget. Since it may take some time to see results from your content marketing, and you’ll often need a consistent content effort to get said results, some brands may worry about spend.

  • You don’t have an existing relationship with the writer. You might be worried about the freelancer’s ability or consistency, and whether they’ll follow through on the task at hand. To prevent a disappearing act, make sure that you’re either getting a contract signed, or using a content writing service with a large pool of experienced writers.
  • Freelancers may not understand or be able to capture your brand voice as well as an in-house team member. Freelancers often have multiple clients, so it’s easy to understand why brands worry that the writer won’t be able to capture their voice. If you’re hiring someone with industry experience and you share information like your brand’s USP and style guide, you’d be surprised how well writers can adapt to your brand.
  • Freelancers may not be willing to work with your team. If you have open channels of communication that work for your team and the writer, this shouldn’t be an issue. You can use Slack, Google Hangouts, email, or other project management tools for this. Just make sure you’re asking your contractor to get in touch if they have any questions, and account for the potential need for revisions along the way.
  • Writers won’t be interested enough or able to write about my specific industry. Brands with technical or highly niche topics might worry that freelance writers can’t help, whether because of a lack of access to information, or because of an unwillingness to find it. Think topics like “how to set up invoice factoring with international clients,” or advanced, technical programming articles with huge blocks of code. There are, however, freelancers in every specialty and niche, as well as content platforms that can help you find the right one.

Working with a reputable writer or content agency can often relieve you of these fears. This will allow you to focus on other mission-critical tasks, while the time-consuming content is left to the experts.

Outsourcing Pros

According to B2B Content Marketing study, 84% of marketers in B2B companies outsource their content creation activities. This may suggest that fewer businesses are opting to have in-house writers.
There are an enormous number of benefits that can come from outsourcing content, especially when you work with a strong, experienced writer with knowledge of SEO and content strategy.

  • You can focus your time on high-level strategy instead of writing. When you aren’t stuck spending time researching and creating blog posts, you can focus on the high-level strategy that needs your attention the most.
  • It’s often more cost-effective to outsource than to hire staff members. This is particularly true if you want to hire an expert writer with experience in your field. Aside from the flat rate and salary differences, you also won’t have to spend money on taxes, benefits, and training like you would with an employee.
  • You can scale up or down as you see fit. If you need two blog posts this month, five the next, and zero after that, that’s okay. Some freelancers may want to set up retainers, but many are happy to work on an as-needed basis. You pay for what you need, when you need it; you don’t need to worry about justifying someone’s salary. You can also hire as many writers as you need, when you need them.
  • You can choose the payment methods that work for your company. While many freelancers and agencies have a preferred pay structure, you can search for what works for you, whether it’s paying based on word count, hours worked, or a flat rate fee.
  • Freelancers bring diverse experience and perspectives. Hiring a third-party writer or agency can offer expertise and insight into new strategies. They may also have a great way of looking at your content, business, or audience that you hadn’t thought of yet. Sometimes getting an outsider’s perspective can be invaluable.

Keep in mind that freelance writing is extremely competitive. Many strong writers are vying for good jobs with great clients who know what they want, so content marketplaces always have a vast pool of writers. Many have writers specializing in different niches, too, providing you with multiple options.

Sources:

https://contentmarketinginstitute.com/articles/writing-examples-tools-tips/
https://brilliantio.com/how-to-start-content-writing/
https://www.semrush.com/blog/content-writing-how-to-write-and-order-different-types-of-content/

How to Introduce Yourself in English (Like a Pro)

But currently, staying in Delhi. Regarding my education qualification, I did my graduation in B. Com from ccs University and I completed my 10 and 12 from CBSE board. And currently, I pursuing MBA from Galgotia University My short term goal is to get a job in a reputed company and my long-term goal is to achieve a good position where I can build my career as well as an organisation too and also become a good person in life. My hobby is doing meditation and completing work effectively and efficiently. My strength is I am self-motivated and follow the rules strictly. That’s all about me. Thank you.

listen-on-google-podcasts

How To Introduce Yourself Professionally – Follow These 3 Easy Steps

How is it possible that one of the most basic aspects of business communication is also one of the most awkward ones? We’re talking about how to introduce yourself in a professional context –at a meeting, before a presentation, or meeting new clients. We are all able to say Hi, my name is Paola, and I am the Marketing Director at Talaera, but who are you beyond that? First impressions matter, and how you communicate in the workplace will help you have a better relationship with clients, leads, and coworkers. In this episode, you’ll learn an effective way to introduce yourself professionally in 3 easy steps. You can find the transcript at the bottom.

Introductions are extremely important for your professional life. They are like your new business card. The first interaction you have with someone will impact how others perceive you, and also the relationship you’ll later have with them.

The very first tip is to have it prepared . Don’t improvise. Have it ready for any professional situation. You can’t hesitate when you introduce yourself. So follow the steps below, write it down, practice, and make sure it’s ready and fresh for when you need it. Drop your scripted introduction in the comments and we’ll tell you how you did!

Explore our communication programs

A 3-step framework for professional introductions

When it comes to introductions, every case is different, and you need to understand the room. When networking, for example, introductions tend to be shorter, but in a negotiation, you usually spend more time introducing yourself and bonding with the other party. But, in general, a professional introduction should include these three parts or steps: (1) who you are , (2) what you do , and (3) what others need to know . Once you have those three, wrap it up. Don’t go on and on until the end of time. Let’s look at each step individually. I’ll explain them in-depth and provide some examples.

#1 Who you are

#2 What you do

The second step might sound simple, but it’s actually the most important part. Usually, people say their name and their job title. But what else is there to say about you? What is it exactly that you do? The tricky part is to find the right length of your elevator pitch. You need to provide some key points your audience can hang on to without having to write an essay.

So, yes, you should still mention your job title, your company, perhaps even your department, but also add what you really do –in plain English. It should be short, so skip the details. A sentence is enough. What’s important is that people immediately understand what you do and want to work with you.

When explaining what you do, don’t focus on tasks, focus on results . Talk about how you help people and be specific. If you can craft an introduction that’s focused on the results that the other person is looking for, you have it. You win. Think about the problems they may have and offer a solution. And most importantly, adjust this message according to your audience.

#3 What others need to know

The last bit of a professional introduction consists of adding other nice facts that are relevant to the people and the context. Here, you can show your contribution (what you bring to the table), and you can set the expectations for the meeting or presentation going on.

Now, it’s your turn. Prepare your own introduction and remember to include all the steps we just mentioned. Number #1 – Your name . Number #2 – What you do (which includes your job title and how you help people), and Number #3 – A detail that the others need to know (what you bring to the table in that specific situation). And once you’ve included them, end there. As the Alice in Wonderland quote goes. “Begin at the beginning, and go on till you come to the end: then stop.”

If you still need help to communicate effectively with other cultures, get in touch with Talaera . This article works as supporting material for our podcast episode on how to communicate better with US Americans. You can read the transcript below. Make sure you check out all our other Talaera Talks episodes and subscribe to get new episode alerts.

Example of a Student Introduction (for IELTS)

If you take the IELTS, your self-introduction may sound a little different, since the Speaking Test is structured like a conversation. Watch the video below and listen to how this top-scoring candidate from Spain introduces himself:

To the question ‘What are you studying, and do you enjoy it?’ Xavier offers not only specific details about the subject he is studying, but also his opinions about the experience:

I’m studying law and I do enjoy it, most aspects of it. But in this final year there is a lot of hard work and a lot of reading, and I cannot say that I enjoy all of this reading. But what I really enjoy is working on case studies. What I mean is discussing cases. I like to exchange ideas with people.

I want to have a career in law, but I have to decide which area to specialize in first, and then maybe study for another four or five years. I hope to specialize in environmental law, which is the law that businesses have to abide by to ensure that their practices do not affect the environment.

Other Phrases for Introducing Yourself

  • I’m based in London, but I live in New York . This phrase is used when you want to make it clear that your current living situation is temporary, or you do a lot of traveling because of your job.
  • I live in New York, but I’m originally from Lisbon . English speakers like to use this phrase when mentioning their native country or city. It’s more common than phrases like I was born in / I grew up in.
  • I’m a colleague of Jane’s . When introducing yourself in a group or at an event (like a party or a conference), it’s helpful to explain your connection to other people in the group or event. Similar phrases include: I work together with Jane / I’m Jane’s brother / Jane and I both study Chemistry at Toronto University.
  • I’m the father of two young girls . You can use this phrase if you want to say something about your family (it’s also a simple way for parents to explain why they don’t have much “free” time). Similar phrases include: I’m the daughter of two psychologists / I’m one of eight children / I’m the son of Queen Elizabeth.

References:

https://blog.talaera.com/introduce-yourself-professionally
https://soenglish.me/introduce-yourself/
https://www.indiabix.com/hr-interview/tell-me-about-yourself/
https://www.flowrite.com/blog/how-to-introduce-yourself-in-an-email

Picking up The Slate

Greg is faced with an ethical dilemma. At one hand, giving Natalie an honest evaluation might negatively affect her GPA while giving her a bad review makes him feel petty and inconsiderate. The other team members will receive an A. Greg situation presents a typical scenario that requires employment of ethical theories to determine the right action from the wrong action. As such, this paper will use four common theories of ethics to guide Greg into making the right choice. Through a keen investigation into the four common theories, the paper will analyze Greg’s dilemma and give a recommendation on the action that is ethically right.

Ethical Analysis of Greg’s dilemma

According to the theory of consequentialism, the rightness or wrongness of each and every action must be considered on the basis of consequences that they produce (“THEORIES OF ETHICS – School of Education – Syracuse University”, 2017). The consequences are normally viewed in terms of the intrinsic value that they generate. According to this theory, utilitarianism is a common type of consequentialism that suggest that people should act in a manner that will give the greatest good for all. In this case Greg is in a dilemma on which action he should take (Association of Colleges and Universities, 2010). If he decides to give Natalie an honest opinion, then Natalie could have her GPA negatively affected. As a result of having a low GPA, Natalie may find it difficult to get any job in the job market. She may be forced to settle for a lower salary while the rest of her teammates enjoy good pay. She is also at risk of becoming neglected and depressed. Her chance of having a good team watching her back will surely be affected. The burden of negatively affecting Natalie’s GPA weighs heavily on him if he decides to give her an honest evaluation. On the other hand, he is not sure if giving her a false evaluation will may later be harmful to potential employers and people who may entrust Natalie on the basis of her GPA. Greg has to decide the less harmful consequence and choose it.

The second common theory of ethics is Kantian deontologism. The theory is based predominantly on the works of Immanuel Kant (“THEORIES OF ETHICS – School of Education – Syracuse University”, 2017). According to Kant, the course of action chosen should be universally accepted. As such, the rightness or the wrongness of an action depends on whether it conforms to the moral law of a people (“THEORIES OF ETHICS – School of Education – Syracuse University”, 2017). Greg has to consider if helping out a troubled Natalie to graduate with a decent GPA is more important as opposed to giving her an honest evaluation that may fail her. The question would be whether making Natalie suffer as a result of her poor work ethics is considered more acceptable than honesty and integrity. Depending on what is considered a moral law, Greg can make a choice that would be universally acceptable.

The third theory of ethics employed for this case scenario is natural law (Wilson, 2013). The theoretical position suggests that one may discover the principles of good and bad by looking at human nature and picking actions that will move towards the flourishing of humans (“THEORIES OF ETHICS – School of Education – Syracuse University”, 2017). Natalie has been a huge burden to the team. Greg has the chance to condemn her poor work ethics by giving her an honest evaluation though it might negatively influence Natalie’s GPA. Greg has also to weigh the implication that a poor GPA could have for Natalie. She will probably have to settle for less important jobs and lower pay as compared to if she had a good GPA. In addition, Natalie could potentially suffer from depression and feel neglected if she learns that the rest of her teammates got an A while she got a lower grade. Greg has to consider whether compromising his integrity so that Natalie gets a good chance is worth the trouble she could potentially face if she gets a low GPA.

The fourth theory of ethics to consider is the virtue ethics. This theory has two different approaches and it is therefore not clear. Approach number one suggests that the traits of people are either laudable or blameworthy (“THEORIES OF ETHICS – School of Education – Syracuse University”, 2017). Virtue ethics is concerned with systematically formulating traits of character which make the human behavior praiseworthy or blameworthy. In this case scenario, integrity and honesty can be considered to be praiseworthy traits while poor work ethics and stubbornness could be considered as blameworthy (Stephen, 2014). Greg has to give Natalie an honest evaluation even if it may negatively affect her GPA. An honest evaluation is considered a praiseworthy virtue that humanity embraces. In addition, Greg may consider this act to have positive future impacts since an individual molded in the right manner will have positive influence on the society as opposed to an individual who has poor work ethics. Natalie must learn to embrace praiseworthy traits in order for her to positively contribute to the community at large. You can find many more details about this theory of ethics in this code of ethics essay.

Literary Analysis

Scholars of psychology have to understand the various perspectives that the scholars before them had concerning the human nature and how people develop the different personalities. Therefore, it is important to read widely and examine the various literature and compare their content to understand the schools of thought that exist and their application to the practice of psychotherapy. Hence, the paper will critically examine the work of Victor Frankl titled “Man’s Search for Meaning” and the book by Sigmund Freud titled “The Future of an Illusion.” The paper will also analyze Jean Jacques Rousseau’s “Discourse on the Origin of Inequality.”  The three works all talk about human nature and the role of faith in its development. While Frankl and Rousseau agree that the nature of humans is good, Freud sharply opposes. Also, while Frankl and Rousseau recognize the importance of faith and religion in the psychological health of humans, Freud, on the other hand, says that religion is illusory and wishful thinking that has negative consequences.

“Man’s Search for Meaning” was authored from Victor Frankl’s personal experience in a Nazi concentration camp. The work details the struggles of the writer in the camp and how he coped (Frankl 2). The work contains the mental picture of a typical prisoner in the dire conditions that they were subjected to and discussed it from his logotherapy psychological perspective. For example, in the section of the book in which the author talks of how they walked in a cold place for miles while hardly strong enough to walk he says, “I understood how a man who has nothing left in this world still may know bliss…” (Frankl 48). By doing that he informs the author of his actual feelings as he went through the problems and applied his theory to it. Therefore, unlike Rousseau and Freud, the author gives himself as evidence of how his theory works.  Freud, on the other hand, offers a critic of religion in the lives of humans. In his critic, he uses the beliefs and psychoanalysis as the main tools of passing his point. Therefore, the critic lacks strong evidence to support the argument of the author apart from the backing of the psychoanalytic approach. Rousseau’s “Discourse on the Origin of Inequality” on the other hand critics the ideas of the authors that discussed the topic of human nature before him such as Hobbes. He also lacks personal experience like Victor Frankl. Therefore, Frankl is more convincing in his work because of the use of evidence from his life and the application of the theory that he communicated to the people to survive in the concentration camp and also outside after he was freed. The writing of the method of logotherapy and its application from the perspective of a person who had experienced it makes the work of the theorist more authentic than the Freud’s critic of religion and Rousseau’s discussion of human nature.

The three authors also give different perspectives of the psychology behind people’s actions. Frankl argues based on his logotherapy perspective. According to the view, the nature of people is driven by the purpose of their lives. Therefore, people behave like they do because they seek to have a purpose in their lives. The purpose may be founded on themselves or the people that look up to them. For example, in some part of the text, the author is inspired to fight for his survival by the thought of his wife. The author says “…But my mind clung to my wife’s image…” (Frankl 48). In the part of the text, the author found a purpose for his life in his wife. He struggled to survive in the harsh conditions because of reasons such as his wife. The author says that their meaning drives people’s behaviors and that despite the situation that a person may be, life never stops having to mean. The author thought that there is always someone looking down upon people even if the situation is very hard. The idea that his wife is looking down at him or imagining his wife gave his life meaning.

Rousseau, in his work says that two forces drive people. One of them is self-preservation, and the other is ‘pity.’ The view of Rousseau can be compared to that of Hobbes who also said that self-preservation is the primary motive of the actions of people (Rousseau 35). However, Rousseau asserts that pity is a significant part of what drives people’s behaviors. According to Rousseau, if self-preservation were the only principle that drove people as Hobbes had suggested earlier, people would be monsters. The author describes pity as “an innate repugnance to see his fellow suffer” (Rousseau 36). The nature of people as characterized by the two principles of compassion and self-preservation is corrupted by the society to create the people that exist in the communities. Unlike Frankl, Rousseau discussed the issue of human nature in two situations. One of the situations is one in which the person lives without the interaction and corruption of the society. The author describes humans that have not been corrupted by the societies in his work. The perspective that Rousseau in talking about the topic of human nature is different from both Frankl and Freud because unlike the two, Rousseau talks about the nature of people away from societies while the other two authors speak about the nature of humans within the context of the society.

In “The Future of an Illusion” on the other hand, Freud centers his discussion on religion. Therefore, his discussion on motivation is limited to what leads people to believe in god and their faiths. The author says that people are motivated to believe in religion by their wishful thinking that it will bring them immortality of their souls and a prolongation of their earthly existence by life after death (Freud 38). Therefore, according to the writing of Freud, human behaviors are driven by their self-centeredness. The negative ideology of humans is contrary to the belief of Rousseau and Frankl. Freud directly opposed the thoughts of Rousseau and Frankl.

The views of the authors also differ concerning the innate nature of people. According to Frankl, two kinds of people exist. The text of Frankl says that there are both decent and indecent people. The author wrote that there were both decent and indecent prisoners. Therefore, the author believes that depending on the actions and behavior of people, there are those that are good and those that are evil. The view is different from both Rousseau and Freud as it shows a more liberal line of thought as compared to the other writers who say that people are naturally good and evil respectively. According to Frankl, decent and indecent people were the only important races. For instance, in the concentration camp, he says that there are indecent as well as decent prisoners (Frankl 102). He also says that there were both decent and indecent Nazi guards. Therefore, from his experience, the author does not generalize the nature of people as either good or bad. Instead, he says that both types of people exist in all societies.

Contrary to the liberal thinking of Frankl, Rousseau thought that people are naturally good and that they are only corrupted by the societies in which they live and civilization. The author terms the human being in the absence of the society and civilization as being in “the state of nature.” According to Rousseau, timid, lacking foresight and peaceful (Rousseau). The author argues that the capacity to understand that God gave humans is what hinders the natural state and brings civilization, hence making people exist in an unnatural state. The author says that it is the existence of people within the contexts of societies that make them evil and brutish. By saying that the understanding that God gave people hinders their natural goodness, the author blames God for the unnatural state of humans that is characterized by brutishness, solitariness, and selfishness (Rousseau).

Freud views people as being naturally evil. The perception of Freud concerning the natural state of humans sharply differs from both Frankl and Rousseau’s. According to Freud, human nature is naturally anti-social, destructive and rebellious. The destructiveness of people results to disasters when people interact in their societies because “masses are lazy and unintelligent” (Freud 7). The view of the author differs from both Rousseau and Frankl in that unlike both, Freud first claims that people are not intelligent. The author also claims that there is no goodness in people. Freud also thinks that civilization result to the positive attributes of people. Freud thought that civilization prevented people from showing their destructive nature because of the existence of laws and leaders to guide them. The thought of Freud about civilization differs from that of Rousseau. Rousseau blames civilization for the evils that exist while Freud thanks civilization for the order. Freud also thought that religion is an emphasis on the attainment of the drives such as sex, wealth and other selfish gains through believing in the benefits that come from believing (Freud 17).

In conclusion, Frankl, Freud, and Rousseau wrote in different contexts about the nature of humans. Also, the writers took different perspectives concerning the topic. The issue of the nature of people is crucial because it allows psychologists to understand what drives people to behave the way they act. Frankl talks from the voice of a person who has gone through the worst and recovered through believing in that there was purpose in his life. Freud, on the other hand, critiqued religion and described as part of the wishful ideas of people and their evil nature. Rousseau thought that people were naturally good but corrupted by their societies. Therefore, the views of the authors differ a lot from each other. Frankl presents a more open-minded and convincing argument based on the fact that he speaks from experience and illustrates the working of his theory.  Freud and Rousseau critique their predecessors but offer insufficient empirical evidence to support their claims.

Individualism

Individualism refers to a case whereby one strives to be self-reliant or independent. Individualists tend to resist any external influence in their day to day lives by the government or from any other member of the society. The proponents of individualism argue that an individual is the most critical element in the community and, hence, he/she must vehemently oppose any anarchy that is met out on him for him/her to remain liberated. Therefore, the primary objective of individualism is to sustain one’s rights and freedoms, which eventually lead to self-actualization. During the struggle for liberation in most states, various vital figures – such as Martin Luther King and Adam Smith – called for the enactment of policies that promoted their country’s individualism through publications. An evaluation of Martin Luther’s Open Letter to Christian Nobility, Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum, and Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations points out that Martin Luther has the most compelling approach towards individualism.

The Theme of Individualism as Brought out by Martin Luther King

Through his Open Letter to Christian Nobility, Luther calls upon all the Christians to struggle for liberation from the clergymen who have continuously violated their (the Christians) right to air out their concerns in religious matters. According to Luther, the clergymen have been taking advantage of three rules – three walls – which have been the genesis of corruption in Christendom. To start with, the priests dictated that the temporal power that they hold has no any jurisdiction over them. Instead, they argue that the spiritual power supersedes the earthly powers (Luther, 1). Luther notes that this is in contradiction to the rules, including the Biblical laws that dictate that every person should be reprimanded whenever he/she does contrary to the law (Luther 4). Even though every sin should be met with the appropriate punishment (Luther 4), the clergymen have neglected this principle by taking advantage of the temporal powers to the extent that they cannot be deposed if they sin. The spiritual leaders have also resisted being corrected according to the Biblical stipulations; instead, they argue that the interpretation of the scriptures is a preserve of the Pope (Luther 1). Finally, Luther claims that whenever a council that would investigate the conduct of the clergymen is to be formed, they (the clergymen) argue that it can only be constituted by the pope (Luther 1). Luther is of the opinion that the Christians should arise and question the integrity of their leaders if need be. He notes that by being baptized, all of them are equal and, thus, no one should take advantage of the other. All that one should do is have faith in God and recognize that there is no authority in the church (Luther 7). Therefore, Christians should disregard anyone trying to take advantage of his/her temporal powers to prevent the institution of a council that would guarantee transparency in the church affairs.

The Theme of Individualism as Brought out by Francis Bacon

Bacon is of the opinion that an individual should always cross-examine the ‘subtlety of things’ in his/her environment. Afterwards, he/she should come up with a reasonable judgment on what ought to be changed (Bacon 3). He argues that human power and human knowledge have a common point where they meet, but their effect can only be made use in cases where the cause as to why they have converged is known (Bacon 5). According to Bacon, there are two main approaches a person can make use of while responding to issues within his/her environment.  The first way is known as the customary way or the anticipating nature while the second one is the interpretative nature, which enables one to come up with reasonable judgments (Bacon 7). The anticipating nature forms the basis of consent among the members of the society and, hence, they cannot offer differing opinions even in cases whereby their welfare is threatened. On the other hand, the interpreting nature is anchored on the need of making sure that the societal members assent the proposed measures, and it includes the collection of views from every member (Bacon 7). However, he notes that no meaningful progress can be got through anticipation and, thus, everyone must embrace the interpretive means of growth. Baron is of the opinion that one should follow his/her conviction to achieve the desired goals. However, in doing so, he/she will have to counter any threats that might hinder the achievement of the aspirations.

The Theme of Individualism as Brought out by Adam Smith

In his text on The Wealth of Nations, Smith argues that a country’s prosperity is gauged by the worth of goods and services it produces. He notes that the best way to enhance the success of the state would be by increasing its production capacity to maximize the exports (Smith, 345). Nonetheless, the nation must also enact policies that regulate the importation of goods and services as they might adversely affect its economy. Smith is of the opinion that, for a nation to start developing, it must encourage division and specialization of labor, which would eventually lead to the advancement of better methods of production. With time, the improvements in the means of production would lead to an increase in capital accumulation, which implies that the investment levels of a country would increase (Smith 81). Also, Smith suggests that an economy would perform better if it operates under the laissez-faire mechanism and, hence, governments should avoid establishing monopolies and giving tax cuts to some companies. Therefore, Smith brings out some fundamental concepts of individualism by illustrating that an economy should put in place measures that would set it on the developmental path without relying on international trade. He also claims that nations should restrict importation of goods and services – while encouraging their exports – as a means of increasing their productivity levels, which would ultimately enhance them, achieve economic development.

The Most Compelling Approach

After carrying out the above analysis, I find Martin Luther’s approach to be the most compelling. Through the evaluation of the three walls built by the Romanists (that temporal power has no jurisdiction over the spiritual power, the interpretation of the scriptures can be made by the pope only, and that it is just the pope who can form a council), Luther awakens the Christians that they should stand up and speak against the vices that have been taking place in the church. He demonstrates that no every member of the congregation – irrespective of whether he/she is a spiritual leader – should be reproached whenever he/she does wrong. After baptism, all the Christians become equal and so no one should be hindered from making up favorable suggestions – such as instituting a disciplinary council – to ascertain transparency and the uphold of everyone’s rights in the church.

Comparison of Stonewall Jackson and George Patton

Good leadership is critical for anyone to win a battle. In war, leadership means knowing what one needs to do and doing it appropriately. Other factors required for one to overcome an adversary include industrial capacity, weapons, logistics, and technology. Leadership is the key catalyst of the underlying reactions whose ingredients include but not limited to moral, technology, and logistics. The two movies Gods and Generals and Patton depict troops in the civil war under commanders Jackson and Patton respectively. Jackson and Patton portray various leadership abilities.

This paper compares the two commanders to reveal who had better leadership qualities. Although the duo had some common traits, all other things being equal between their armies, Jackson had more superior leadership qualities than Patton. Jackson’s excellent leadership qualities inspired his troops, and they overcome their physical and logistical disadvantages thus defeating forces that were larger in terms of equipment and number.

Jackson portrayed various rules worth emulating not only in war, but also in daily life. One of these rules is pressing on (Gods and Generals 2003). The general often force-marched his army mercilessly. Jackson believed that soldiers should accomplish their mission regardless of how hard they have to push the enemy. For example, the general led his army intelligently to appear to the enemies’ rear without being detected. This tactic allowed them to attack and kill a large number of enemies thus making them weak.

Jackson also preferred using a large number of soldiers or mass to contain the enemy. In his final and brilliant battle where he lost his life, the general used all his armies in a single glorious stroke of military (Gods and Generals 2003). The entire corps enabled him to attack and subdue the enemies quickly. Jackson suggested to Lee that they mass the corps in order to attack the enemies successfully (Gods and Generals 2003). However, the use of mass corps led to confusion which resulted in the death of the commander. Jackson was shot by one of the soldiers who mistook him. At that time, the leader was trying to re-enter his line after attacking the enemy. Nonetheless, Jackson’s maxims portray a substance of his success.

The commander also portrayed these principles in other battles such as in the valley as well as in the wilderness to a great extent (Gods and Generals 2003). Indeed, his skills with regard to tactical ability were evident because he could not only inspire his troops but also understand and take advantage of the topography to overcome the enemy. That is, he could understand the terrain and concentrate on the battlefield thus allowing him to motivate his troops by providing them success most of the times.

Patton also showed some skills similar to those of Jackson. For example, in addition to the use of knowledge, Patton also inspired his troops and used force or mass like Jackson. Jackson believed that spiritual inspiration and motivation are important factors for anyone to win a particular battle (Gods and Generals 2003). Patton portrayed similar trait. From his point of view, attacking the enemy’s strategy is of supreme importance in war.

Both Patton and Jackson also used knowledge to subdue their enemies in many encounters. The two won most of the battles even when outnumbered but rarely lost battles in which they possessed numerically superior forces. However, none of the elements; mass, inspiration or knowledge dominated their battles. From Patton’s perspective, any operation should involve moving down the path until one jump to the enemy (Patton). Patton portrayed these principles in most of his battles evident in the movie. For example, whenever he confronted his adversaries, he directed his troops to bump the enemy at the point of contact and fire with nearly all the command. He then led the rest of the force to move in a wide envelopment in order to attack the enemy from the back.

However, Patton was unfriendly to his troops. For example, he told Bennet, one of his soldiers, “You are just goddamned coward” (Patton). The commander further claimed that he could not tolerate a bastard to seat in front of brave wounded soldiers. Unlike Patton, Jackson did not embarrass his troops but kept motivating them to move on and fight bravely. For example, he told his soldiers “Make yourself comfortable there” (Gods and Generals 2003). The statement implies that the general was friendly to his troop rather than rudely commanding them to attack the enemy.

Nevertheless, like Jackson, Patton felt that inspiration was more important than mass and knowledge. This statement is valid from the point of view that, suppose an army comprises of men with same military knowledge but no one to inspire them in war. In such case, the enemy can quickly subdue them. However, encouraging the troops can make them act until they win the battle. Although knowledge is important in understanding when, where, and how to attack, it might not be possible to transmit knowledge quickly to the subordinates to win a battle.

Like Jackson, Patton believed that using mass troops could help to subdue the enemy quickly. Patton believed that any leader in war should attain victory by first inspiring, secondly use superior military arts or knowledge, and then force or mass (Patton). The general followed these tenets in some of his battles. For example, sometimes circumstances forced him to use mass troops as the last resort especially if the army on the ground was not producing desirable results. In other words, Patton, like Jackson, resorted to the use of mass troops only when he faced equally inspired and knowledgeable commander. Patton also inspired his troops and used superior knowledge in order to outmaneuver his adversaries. However, he often abused his men. For example, he told Bradley, one of the soldiers that one of the soldiers (yellow man) should have been shot for being coward.

Unlike Patton, Jackson was intensely religious and often mentioned the name of God. Although Patton also mentioned God’s name, he was not religious. He says “My God, they have forgotten about all of the people…” (Patton). However, the two men had a common philosophy. For example, they inspired their troops which allowed them to conduct their battles at incredible speeds, shock and surprise the enemies with superior force. Therefore, although the similarities in the men’s leadership, knowledge, and single-mindedness at war are striking, the duo portrayed unmistakably different temperament and personality.

Based on the analysis of the two movies, Jackson and Patton had two identifiable characteristics which made not only them, but also every commander who possess the traits, a successful leader. These characteristics include efficient use of mass and knowledge. The audience would then wonder which traits propelled each leader to victory. Indeed, this is where individuality begins, and similarities end.

General Patton utilized personal inspiration to encourage or motivate his troops (Patton). The commander’s use of theatrical motivational approaches provided stimuli to his army which enabled them to have incomparable success. On the other hand, Jackson’s mystical qualities at war made his troops to adore him (Gods and Generals 2003). In fact, most of his soldiers worshiped him. Jackson often surprised his troops with new tactics to attack the adversaries. For example, his philosophy of not informing the troops of a pending plan to maneuver the enemies’ movement enabled his troops to surprise the opponent abruptly. On the other hand, Patton’s strict disciplinary nature, knowledge of military, unpredictability, and use of mass made him one of the finest tactical generals.

Nevertheless, I would prefer to serve as an enlisted soldier under Jackson rather than Patton. It would be better to operate under a friendly and inspirational commander rather than a rude one. Jackson proved himself as a great leader and his troops unquestionably trusted him. I would desire to work under such a successful and trustworthy commander. Although Jackson often forced the troops to push themselves when confronting the enemies, doing so made them succeed in most of their battles. Moreover, success leads to success and by gaining confidence; the leader was able to apply his superior military skills while pushing the troops to move forward. Unlike Jackson, Patton seemed unfriendly thus it might be difficult to work with him.

Rhetorical Critique of Public Communication Artifact

The essay examines the speech presented by the president-elect, Donald Trump one day after his election. It gives a rhetorical criticism of the artifact based on particular features that the viewer can identify after watching the video of the speech. The context of the paper will entail discussing the extent to which it is a narrative. It will use literature from past studies to expound on the argument and understanding of the features of a story as having rhetorical critique elements.

Outline Overview

Introduction: The paper begins with an introduction that explains the major terms applied in the essay including rhetoric and criticism. It defines rhetorical criticism as described by the various gurus in the field. The introduction expounds on the main subject of the assignment rhetorical criticism as applied to artifacts. It also gives a description of how information in the paper will flow.

The selected artifact: this part of the assignment describes the chosen item for rhetorical criticism. It provides a brief description of the item, the aim and its importance to

The Context: Here, the essay explains what the paper will entail, how information will be evaluated and the method of obtaining information about the artifact and explaining using the supporting material.

Research Question: This is the question that the essay answers.

Donald Trump’s Speech as a Narrative: This is the major part of the article and explains the speech based on the rhetorical critique of a narrative. The part is supported by research on the subject of narrative as a type of rhetoric analysis and explaining the artifact about the discussion of what entails a narrative.

Judgment and Conclusion: This section provides a final ruling as to why the paper confirms the artifact of Donald Trump’s speech is a narrative based on the analysis presented.

 

Introduction

Rhetoric entails the strategic utilization of communication either oral or written for the purpose of achieving specified goals (Kuypers, 2010). It is the use of language as well as other symbols in realizing human goals in persuasion. Criticism entails the looking of rhetoric in a closer, critical as well as intentional manner so as to persuade as well as influence the audience. When people make a rhetorical criticism, they are evaluating, interpreting, exploring and making a judgment on the qualities of an artifact in a manner of self-expression. Foss (2004) describes rhetorical criticism as the process of engaging in qualitative research method designed for systematically investigating and explaining symbolic acts and artifacts to help in understanding rhetorical processes. In rhetorical criticism, symbols are essential for effective communication that can be examined using approaches such as themes, clusters and feminism criticism (Foss, 2008). Speech is an artifact that can be evaluated using rhetorical criticism. This essay aims at selecting and evaluating one artifact with a persuasive message in public communication.

 

The Selected Artifact

The chosen artifact is the speech made by Donald Trump, one day after he entered the office as the president of the United States of America. This item is presented a compelling message to the public by the president communicating essential information that will build America in the next coming years under his leadership. In his speech, Trump was briefing the public of his plan in moving the country forward.

The Context

In explaining rhetorical criticism in the speech presented by Donald Trump in the state house, a day after his election as the president of the United States of America, this paper will evaluate the president’s use of language and symbols in his message. The context will be examining whether the artifact is a narrative. The method used in evaluating the related time to the speech and how the president presented it and the impact or effect of the message passed to the wider audience or the entire nation of America.

This paper reviews and examines Donald Trump rhetorical presentation in his speech Transition 2017 “A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump.” It critically analyzes what the president said to relay to the public about transitioning to 2017. The paper explains the content of the speech and the events described by the president as forming the next government goals in the coming years. The major question here is what Donald Trump said in his speech one day after the election as the president of the United States of America. The general flow of the rhetorical criticism will be first to look at the artifact as a narrative. A narrative is one form of expression that uses language and symbols that characterize a rhetorical criticism. The next step will be interpreting the main idea depending on the understanding and evaluation of the message presented by the president. It will be a judgment of why it is convincing that the speech was a narrative based on the president’s message.

Research Question: To what extent is President’s Donald Trump a narrative.

Donald Trump’s Speech as a Narrative

In understanding the president’s speech as a story, it is important for a person to learn what a narrative entails, its characteristics and how the speech is a narrative. It is defined as a spoken or written description of events that are connected. Usually, a narrative is presented commonly as a story.  Fisher (1984) describes a story as a paradigm that entails human communication within which people are the storytellers. He introduced four characteristics of a narrative including conflict, plot, and characters. The plot describes the beginning, middle, and end of the story. A story must offer a real reason for why the narrator is telling or writing it to the audience (Fisher, 1984). Fisher described a narrative as a dialectical synthesis of different traditional strands within the rhetoric history including the argument and a theme that is persuasive, literary and aesthetic. Warnick (1987) adds that a narrative must have rationality as the concept that makes it unique. It must provide logic behind the telling of the story. It should give good reasons for holding the story together and having values such as relevance and consistency.  Foss (2008) describes that a narrative must have a causal relationship.

The speech presented by the president one day after the election “A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump,” is a narrative because it entailed describing events that the president intends to do during his term as the leader of the U.S. government. The speech by Donald Trump is a story because of the events that he wanted to address to the public that will take place and how they will be executed by his government. The events are connected and create the causal relationship of the speech. In his speech, Donald was sharing an update on the transition to the presidency (Transition, 2017). He gave an outline of the policy plans that his government would execute within the first one hundred days while in office. The president of the United States of America was giving a brief of what he is and will do from the first day of his service as the leader of America.

Foss (2008) describes four criteria that one should use in evaluating a narrative from other kinds of rhetoric including a minimum of two activities, the events must be organized by time and involve a causal relationship. The events must have a unified subject. Donald Trump’s speech “A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump,” is a narrative because it provides fictional information of the activities that the president and his team will perform to achieve the set goals his government. Tales are considered as fictions in the sense that, the stories presented are usually of activities that have not taken place or already took place in the imaginary world. The events in a narrative are imaginative and do not need to have happened in reality.

Narratives usually have characters and a plot or activities that are occurring (Fisher, 1984). The characters form the subject of the story as either protagonist or antagonist.  A protagonist is the main character/person/item in the narrative and with which the main idea is formed. The antagonist is the character opposing the protagonist. This characteristic of a narrative relates to Trump’s speech whereby, the president is the character addressing the audience. He forms the primary idea with which the speech is presented. The speech is a narrative because it needed the character, Trump so as to push forward or reacts to the activities or events within the plot. The plot is said to have five elements including the exposition, increasing activity, climax, the falling event as well as the resolution. After viewing the speech made by Donald Trump, there a clear plot of how the speaker described events. The president began with a little tone to introduce the subject of the speech. He said, “today I would like to provide the American people with an update on the White House transition and our policy plans for the first 100 days.”  was the exposition; the other events proceed as the president gave his speech until the end. As he speaks, one can realize the transition from one event to the other.

A narrative usually has a conflict in one way or the other (Fisher, 1984). The conflict may exist among the characters or between the characters, acts of nature, the society or the struggle living in the world. In the speech by Donald Trump, there is a conflict that he describes as existing between the American people and the nation because of decreased trade opportunities, jobs for the citizens and affected economy. In his speech, the president addressed how he will end this conflict during his term by putting measures that are strategic in giving America back its beautiful nation. A conflict in a story is said to create the interesting aspect of what the narrator is portraying to the audience.

A narrative always has a setting which entails the time as well as location with which the story takes or took place. Since human communication is seen as historical and situational, this explains why a narrative has a setting that defines the time and location of its development and the reason for its constitution. This is the rationality of a narrative of what demands it intended to meet the audience (Fisher, 1984). The setting sets the scene of the story as well as determining the type of conflict that is occurring. The speech presented by the president-elect, Donald Trump is a narrative since it has a setting that is current and presented at the Whitehouse in Washington D.C. The setting of the speech shows that the president wanted to address critical issues that are facing the nation.

A narrative also has a point of view which is the perspective with which the story is being told. There are two main points of view that a speaker or narrator can have including the first and third person. The first person is when the narrator is telling the story, and the third person is when the story is being told by another person. The speech “A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump,” by Donald Trump is presented in the first person point of view. The president used personal pronouns such as I and My to address the audience of what he and his government will do to build America from its current position to a better one. The first person point of view in the speech creates the personal involvement of the speaker to the audience. According to Foss (2008), narratives also create a personal commitment to presenting the world in a particular manner. For example, narratives are detailed and accurate in their information. They can also be shared.

 

Judgment and Conclusion

To tie the evaluation together, the method of rhetorical criticism used in evaluating the selected artifact is a narrative. A narrative criticism entails analyzing how narratives are used in persuading audiences (Foss, 2008). In this technique of rhetorical criticism, the speaker uses various components of a narrative to connect with the people so as to persuade them including plot, characters as well as the setting.  Judging from the analysis Trump’s speech, it is a narrative based on the above discussion and evidence from the artifact and research. To tie the evaluation together, one can see that Donald Trump in his speech was telling a story that entailed connected events. He had a clear opening of the speech, middle and an ending. The language used was fluent and eloquent to ensure the audience understood his message. The subject of the speech was clear and the president gave reasons for supporting the subject. The “A Message from President-Elect Donald J. Trump,” speech is an artifact that supports its rationality and intention to helping the American nation understand the need for anticipating a more promising future. Since a narrative aims at presenting values and truth, the speech by Donald Trump fell within these criteria and confirmed as a narrative with an objective, a theme, an idea that the speaker is giving the audience. The president was objective to take a particular opinion of setting the pace for America by providing his message point by point, in a short message that made an impact to every listener. In his concluding remarks, the president justified the action as necessary for the American nation. Defending the objective of the narrative is one of the standards for its evaluation and judging to suit the criteria of this rhetorical criticism.